The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles (1,883 km2) and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County’s four islands, bigger than Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and unpopulated Kahoʻolawe.
Polynesians, from Tahiti and the Marquesas, were the original peoples to populate Maui. The Tahitians introduced the kapu system, a strict social order that affected all aspects of life and became the core of Hawaiian culture. Modern Hawaiian history began in the mid-18th century. King Kamehameha I, king of Hawaii’s “Big Island,” invaded Maui in 1790 and fought the inconclusive Battle of Kepaniwai, but returned to Hawaii to battle a rival, finally subduing Maui a few years later.
On November 26, 1778, explorer Captain James Cook became the first European to see Maui. Cook never set foot on the island because he was unable to find a suitable landing. The first European to visit Maui was the French admiral Jean-François de La Pérouse, who landed on the shores of what is now known as La Perouse Bay on May 29, 1786. More Europeans followed: traders, whalers, loggers (e.g., of sandalwood) and missionaries. The latter began to arrive from New England in 1823, settling in Lahaina, which at that time was the capital. They clothed the natives, banned them from dancing hula, and greatly altered the culture. The missionaries taught reading and writing, created the 12-letter Hawaiian alphabet, started a printing press in Lahaina, and began writing the islands’ history, which until then was transmitted orally. Ironically, the missionaries both altered and preserved the native culture. The religious work altered the culture while the literacy efforts preserved native history and language. Missionaries started the first school in Lahaina, which still exists today: Lahainaluna Mission School, which opened in 1831.
At the height of the whaling era (1843–1860), Lahaina was a major whaling center with anchorage in Lāhainā Roads; in one season over 400 ships visited Lahaina with 100 berthed at one time. Ships tended to stay for weeks rather than days, which explains the drinking and prostitution in the town at that time, against which the missionaries vainly battled. Whaling declined steeply at the end of the 19th century as petroleum replaced whale oil.
Kamehameha’s descendants reigned until 1872. They were followed by rulers from another ancient family of chiefs, including Queen Liliuokalani who ruled in 1893 when the monarchy was overthrown. One year later, the Republic of Hawaii was founded. The island was annexed by the United States in 1898 and made a territory in 1900. Hawaii became the 50th U.S. state in 1959.
In 1937, Vibora Luviminda trades union conducted the last labor strike of an ethnic nature in the Hawaiian Islands against four Maui sugarcane plantations, demanding higher wages and the dismissal of five foremen. Manuel Fagel and nine other strike leaders were arrested, and charged with kidnapping a worker. Fagel spent four months in jail while the strike continued. Eventually, Vibora Luviminda made its point and the workers won a 15% increase in wages after 85 days on strike, but there was no written contract signed.
Maui was centrally involved in the Pacific Theater of World War II as a staging center, training base, and for rest and relaxation. At the peak in 1943-44, more than 100,000 soldiers were there. The main base of the 4th Marine Division was in Haiku. Beaches (e.g., in Kīhei) were used to practice landings and train in marine demolition and sabotage.
What I like about this photo is all the layers of lava you can see that have been added to over the years
Plant life on Maui with a flower in the middle of the vegetation.
Waves crashing into the lava coastline.
The island of Lanai from Maui.
The surf coming into the lava shore.
Surfer on his surfboard surfing in the Pacific Ocean in Maui.
Surfing on the Pacific Ocean in Maui.
One of the many shorelines in Maui.
Surfer heading to the beach in Maui.
Wind generators in the hills of Maui.
Wind generators in the hills of Maui.
Whale watching in the Pacific Ocean in Maui.
Whale watching in the Pacific Ocean in Maui.
Chinese cemetery that dates way back at Lahaina in Maui.
Ahihi Kinau Natural Area Reserve at Maui.
Areial view of the mountains in Maui.
Sunset in Maui.
On Loan from The Museum of Leonardo DaVinci in Florence, Italy
DaVinci Machines II: The Australian Exhibition
When: Now Open through May 2013
Where: 800 Market St., Ste. 100
Saint Louis, MO 63101
Hours: Tues – Sat 10:00 am – 6:00 pm, Sun – 12:00 pm – 6:00 pm
Across from City Gardens, One Block North of Busch Stadium
About the Exhibition:
The DaVinci Machines Exhibition, on loan from the Museum of Leonardo DaVinci in Florence, Italy, and is one of just three such exhibits traveling the world. It contains over 60 hand-crafted inventions built from Leonardo’s 500 – year old designs and is the life work of three generations of Florentine artisans. They have painstakingly brought to life the creations and concepts devised by the brilliant inventor, scientist, sculptor and artist, Leonardo DaVinci.
With over 60 machines on display, many of which are interactive, the collection features replicas of the major and most striking inventions of the original Renaissance Man. Featured machines on display include the DaVinci bicycle, hang glider, and air screw, the precursor to the modern-day helicopter. Also, on display are two of Leonardo’s revolutionary robotic inventions, the life-size robot drummer and for the first time ever, the secrets behind Leonardo’s legendary mechanical lion. The uniquely interactive machines are a popular aspect of each exhibition as visitors can touch and handle these models to gain a first-hand appreciation of how they work. Explanatory notes and illustrative panels with Leonardo’s drawings from his codices accompany each model.
Highlights of the Exhibition:
- We have several life-size versions of DaVinci’s most famous designs on loan from the Museum of Leonardo DaVinci inFlorence, Italy displayed for the first time in North Amer
- We will be unveiling Leonardo’s incredible vision of the “Ideal City” in full color graphic panels and stunning animation for the first time ever
- Experience DaVinci’s “Last Supper” in the size and scope of how he intended his masterpiece to be viewed
- You will be amazed by our recreation of the Battle of the Titans. In 1505, DaVinci and Michaelangelo were commissioned to paint opposing frescoes in the Hall of Five Hundred in Florence, Italy. Both paintings were left unfinished and over 500 years later we have reproduced them here in Saint Louis, MO.
- Discover Leonardo’s version of the great pyramid building machine revealed for the first time at the DaVinci Machines II inNorth America. This incredible, actual working model, called the Herodotus Machine was believed to have helped build the great pyramids of Egypt.
- View beautiful reproductions of over half of Leonardo’s masterpieces in our stunning art gallery
The Captains Return Statue is underwater near the Eads Bridge. The statue by sculptor Harry Weber was dedicated at the Final Signature Event in St Louis on September 23, 2006. The statue is located very near the Gateway Arch, which commemorates the location of the old St Louis riverfront community. The site of William Clark’s house and Indian Council Chambers and Museum, built in 1816, is within view of the statue.
Also in the photo is Eads Bridge. The Eads Bridge was designed and built by one of America’s greatest engineers, James B. Eads. It was completed in 1874 at a cost of over $10 million dollars. The world famous bridge was the first major bridge to use steel in its construction, and to be built entirely using cantilever supports. Its pier supports, shown here are still some of the deepest in the world. One was sunk 100 feet below the surface of the water to reach bedrock. The bridge was rebuilt and reopened in 2003. It is a combined road, rail and pedestrian bridge.
Four version of the same photo
Lewis and Clark at the St Louis Arch river front | Stock Photo
Black and White Lewis and Clark at the St Louis Arch river front | Stock Photo
Lewis and Clark at the St Louis Arch river front | Digital Oil Painting
HDR Lewis and Clark at the St Louis Arch river front | HDR Stock Photo
Custom car is a passenger vehicle that has been modified in either of the following two ways. First, a custom car may be altered to improve its performance, often by altering or replacing the engine and transmission. Second, a custom car may be a personal “styling” statement, making the car look unlike any car as delivered from the factory. Although the two are related, custom cars are distinct from hot rods. The extent of this difference has been the subject of debate among customizers and rodders for decades. Additionally, a street rod can be considered a custom.
Hot rods are typically American cars with large engines modified for linear speed. The origin of the term “hot rod” is unclear. One explanation is that the term is a contraction of “hot roadster,” meaning a roadster that was modified for speed. Another possible origin includes modifications to or replacement of the camshaft(s), sometimes known as a “stick” or “rod”. A camshaft designed to produce more power is sometimes called a “hot stick” or a “hot rod”. Roadsters were the cars of choice because they were light. The term became commonplace in the 1930s or 1940s as the name of a car that had been “hopped up” by modifying the engine in various ways to achieve higher performance.
There is still a vibrant hot rod culture worldwide, especially in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Sweden. The hot rod community has now been subdivided into two main groups: street rodders and hot rodders. Hot rodders build their cars using a lot of original equipment parts, whether from wrecking yards or NOS , and follow the styles that were popular from the 1940s through the 1960s. Street rodders build cars (or have them built for them) using primarily new parts.
A common factor among current owners of hot rods is to make them more noticeable. There are now many different sectors of hot rodding, some of which are:
- Street rod: a very popular branch of hot rodding. Contrary to the implications of the term hot rod, street rods are a mix of hot rods, custom cars, and modern Detroit cars. Emphasis is on high-quality custom paint jobs, comfortable interiors, and modern engines and running gear. As specified by the NSRA (National Street Rod Association), a street rod must have been manufactured prior to 1949.
- Pro-Street rod: a branch of street rodding featuring mildly customized sedan and coupe models not normally associated with hot rodding that have monster engines and huge rear tires inside the fender wells. They retain all the other luxury features of street rods.
- Billet rod: street rods featuring many items being machined from billet aluminum
- Traditional rod: built according to a particular point in time and stick to those build techniques and materials
- Rat rod: constructed to resemble an old time jalopies, although they may require more work than a show rod
- Show rods (created to compete in national car shows such as America’s Most Beautiful Roadster (AMBR), and the Detroit Autorama).
There are hundreds of local car clubs supporting the hot rod/street rod community. The National Street Rod Association (NSRA) is the largest club in the world and sponsors many local events including the Street Rod Nationals which serve as a showplaces for the majority of the hot-rodding and street-rodding world to display their cars and to find nearly any part needed to complete them. Collectively they are all referred to as Hot Rods.
Drag racing is a competition in which specially prepared automobiles or motorcycles compete, usually two at a time, to be first to cross a set finish line. The race follows a straight course from a standing start over a measured distance, mostcommonly ¼ mile (1,320 ft (400 m)) for most cars, with a shorter 1,000 ft (300 m) for some Top Fuel dragsters and funny cars. Electronic timing and speed sensing systems have been used to record race results since the 1960s.
Before each race (also known as a pass), each driver is allowed to perform a burnout, which heats the driving tires and lays rubber down at the beginning of the track, improving traction. Each driver then lines up (or stages) at the starting line. Races are started electronically by a system known as a Christmas tree. The Christmas tree consists of a column of lights for each driver/lane, one blue, then three amber, one green, and one red, connected to light beams on the track. The first, a split blue open circle, is split into two halves. When the first light beam is broken by the vehicle’s front tire(s) indicate that the driver has pre-staged (approximately 7 inches (180 mm) from the starting line), lights the first half of the blue circle, and then staged (at the starting line), which lights up the second half of the blue circle, and also the corresponding bar in the middle of that circle.
Below the blue “staged” light are three large amber lights, a green light, and a red light. When both drivers are staged, the tree is activated to start the race, which causes the three large amber lights to illuminate, followed by the green light. There are two standard light sequences: either the three amber lights flash simultaneously, followed 0.4 seconds later by the green light (a Pro tree), or the ambers light in sequence from top to bottom, 0.5 seconds apart, followed 0.5 seconds later by the green light (a Sportsman tree, or full tree). If the front tires leaves from a stage beam (stage and pre-stage lights both turned off) before the green light illuminates, the red light for that driver’s lane illuminates instead, indicating disqualification (unless a more serious violation occurs). Once a driver commits a red-light foul (also known as redlighting), the other driver can also commit a foul start by leaving the line too early but still win, having left later. The green light automatically is illuminated on the opposite side of the red-lightning driver. Should both drivers leave after the green light illuminates, the one leaving first is said to have a holeshot advantage.
The winner is the first vehicle to cross the finish line (and therefore the driver with the lowest total reaction time and elapsed time). The elapsed time is a measure of performance only; it does not necessarily determine the winner. Because elapsed time does not include reaction time and each lane is timed individually, a car with a slower elapsed time can actually win if that driver’s holeshot advantage exceeds the elapsed time difference. In heads-up racing, this is known as a holeshot win.
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